Extra dense frame in summer, moderate foliage but very densely branched.
Carpinus betulus, a fairly slow growing and densely branched tree, conical when young, later growing to ovoid or rounded. Adult trees of Carpinus betulus attain a width of 10 m and a height of 15 – 20 m. The branches start to hang down as the tree ages. Young twigs are grey-brown; older branches and the trunk are dark grey and remarkably smooth. The leaves are a fresh green colour in the spring. The leaf has a sharply double serrated edge and the leaf top tapers to a point. In the autumn the leaves turn colour to a golden yellow. If the hornbeam is pruned annually the dry brown leaves generally remain on the tree until well into the winter. The small nutlets hang in decorative separate fruit clusters. Root growth is relatively close to the surface. The rotted leaves are good soil improvers. A hornbeam can easily reach an age of 200 years. If Carpinus betulus is given sufficient room it forms a broad crown up to a height of twenty metres at a later age.